To Press Releases listLausanne, Switzerland,October 5, 2012
What are the main factors that influence how we regulate food and energy intake?
Is it due to the type and energy content of the food; the amount of sensory exposure
(taste, chewing); the volume of the food; or a combination of all of these?
Nestlé Research Center scientists in Lausanne, Switzerland, in collaboration with
scientists from Wageningen University, The Netherlands, set out to understand these
combined influences on food intake and satiety.
This is the first human study to examine the effects of both oral and gastric stimulation
(at the same time and independently) on energy intake and appetite. Four experimental
conditions were tested and compared with a control group. The experimental conditions
consisted of a combination of one or eight minutes of oral stimulation (chewing
a food but not swallowing), and gastric stimulation with either 100 mL or 800 mL
of (isocaloric) liquid given through a nasogastric tube. A nasogastric tube was
placed in control subjects, but neither oral nor gastric stimulation was performed.
Thirty minutes after the stimulations, volunteers were offered a meal in which they
could eat as much as they liked (ad libitum).The appetite and wellbeing of the volunteers
was assessed using questionnaires that were completed immediately before and after
stimulation, 15 minutes after the stimulation ended, and before and after the meal.
After the simulations, volunteers were offered a meal in which they could eat until
they felt satisfied
Results revealed that there was a significant decrease in the ad libitum food intake
of volunteers who chewed the food for 8 minutes compared to control subjects. However,
there was no major difference in food intake between the control condition and the
one-minute oral stimulation. No significant differences in energy intake were found
for the varying gastric stimulation conditions (100 mL and 800 mL).
All test conditions with oral and gastric stimulation significantly decreased subjects’
appetite ratings compared to the control condition.
Based on these findings, Nestlé scientists suggest that the duration of oral sensory
stimulation (chewing, taste, etc) has an important influence on energy intake and
“Our results emphasize the importance of oral sensory stimulation in the regulation
of food intake,” said Dr. Alfrun Erkner, Nestlé research scientist involved in the
study. “However, follow-up studies are needed for a better understanding of the
interaction of these oral and gastric factors on eating behaviour. This work provides
the scientific understanding that will contribute to future product development.”
Current Study: ‘Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake’,
published in Obesity:
Are all proteins made alike: Nestlé researchers seek answers
The brain in your gut